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CN English-American literature test paper (April, 2003) III

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Give brief answers to each of the following questions in English. Write your answers in the corresponding space on the answer sheet.

45.In Chapter 15 of Wuthering Heights, Heath cliff said to Catherine: “Why did you betray your own, Cathy?... You loved me-then what right have you to leave me?... I have not broken your heart-you have broken it-and in breaking it, you have broken mine.”

Taking the whole novel into consideration, do you think Heathcliff’s above accusation of Catherine’s betrayal can be justified? If you think so, what reasons does Catherine have to betray Heathcliff and their love?

A. Heathcliff' s accusation can be justified.
B. The reasons of her betrayal may be:
1) The fancy she felt for Linton, that is, she was attracted by Linton' s pleasant personality, his rich knowledge, and his elegant manners.
2) Her vainglory made her desire a kind of upper-class life and social status.
3) She was afraid that she might suffer poverty and be degraded if she had got married to  Heathcliff.
4) She fancied if she got married to Linton, she might have the means to help Heathcliff in getting a good education and becoming a gentleman so that they could be united without being degraded.

46.John Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress is generally regarded as a religious allegory. What does the work symbolically concern? What is the predominant metaphor that is carried on through the whole work? And what is the author’s purpose in writing such a book?

A. It concerns the search for spiritual salvation.
B. "That life is a journey" is to urge people to abide by Christian doctrines.
C. The author's purpose is to urge people to abide by Christian doctrines and to seek salvation through constant struggles with their own weaknesses and all kinds of evils.

47. The following passage is taken from The Merchant of Venice. Read it carefully and find the dramatic it contains. Use it as an example to illustrate what dramatic irony is.

“Bassanio: Antonio, I am married to a wife
Which is as dear to me as life itself;
But life itself, my wife, and all world,
Are not with me esteem’d above thy life;
I would lose all, ay, sacrifice them all
Here to this devil, to deliver you.
Portia: Your wife would give you little thanks for that,
If she were by to hear you make the offer.”

A. When the audience is aware of a discrepancy between a character' s perception of his or her own situation and the true nature of that situation, that is dramatic irony.
B. In the given example, Portia, Bassanio' s newly-married wife, disguised herself as the  lawyer to take charge of the case. Portia herself and the audience know all this, but Bassanio is ignorant of it. So when Bassanio offers in front of his disguised wife to sacrifice  her in order to deliver Antonio, he makes himself behave in a ridiculous way in the eyes of  the audience. Thus an effect of dramatic irony is achieved.

48. What is the most famous theme in Henry James′s fiction? And what is his favourite approach in characterization, which makes him different from Mark Twain and W. D. Howells as realists? Give two titles of his works in which this theme and this approach are employed.

Henry James' s most famous theme is what is generally called "the international theme". His novels or short stories of the theme are always set against a larger international background,usually between Europe and America. They center around the conflict of the two cultures,represented by an innocent American and a sophisticated European. James is regarded as the  founder of psychological realism for his psychoanalytical approach to his Characters. Daisy Miller, The Portrait of A Lady, The American, The Ambassadors are his representative works of this kind.

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